Thursday, May 19, 2016

Factors Of Promotional Mix

Posted By: aftab hussain - 9:04 PM


& Comment


Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by any identified sponsor. The pages of professional newsletters and magazines are common avenues for advertising information products.

Direct Marketing:

 The use of mails, telephone or other non-personal contact tools to communicate with or solicit a response from specific customers and prospects. Mail shots and leaflets inserted in professional magazines are used to promote information products.

Sales Promotion:

To give Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase of a particular product or service such as to give discounts to any product over a limited time period.

Public Relations and Publicity:

Programmers designed to promote and/or protect a company’s image, or those of its products, including product literature, exhibitions and articles about organization’s products in professional or in-house Newsletters.

Personal Selling:

 Face-to-face interactions with consumers to increase market share. This is common within the business-to-business marketing transactions in the information industry, where sales representatives, often also with a support function, are common.


 Financial or external support of an event or person by an unrelated organization or donor, such as is common in respect of the arts, sports and charities. Large organizations, such as major publishing groups like Reed Elsevier, or software houses, such as Microsoft, may engage in sponsorship, but public sector organizations, in education and libraries, are more likely to be the recipient of sponsorship.
Apparel is a product category that requires sensory evaluations prior to purchase and detailed product information is of great importance in apparel shopping. Shoppers like to try on a garment, feel its fabrics, and coordinate it with other items before making a purchase decision. However, in apparel e-retailing, people rely on the product information presented by retailers. Product presentation has two dimensions, coordinated and representing with a model face. In stores, apparel products are generally displayed coordinated with complementary items, whereas a display of a single item without coordination is generally used in e-retailing. However, empirical evidence from store-based retailing shows that well coordinated product presentation yields more positive product evaluations and higher purchase intentions.
Product coordination also facilitates up-selling and cross-selling, which are key to successful customer relationship management and ultimately to financial profitability.
However, the effect of product coordination has not yet been researched in context of present study. Therefore, this study is anticipated to fill an important gap in current context. Another under researched area in product presentation is usage of model’s face. The way apparel products are displayed varies product to product. Some garments use human models to display the pants and shirts, while other uses hangers. Some apparel products are displayed flat. Currently no research exists that explain or identify particular method which is more attractive to other methods.
However, advertising research support the usage of attractive models to positively influence the consumer response to the ads.

2.1.2 Taste:

It has been widely suggested that taste is the most important determinant of food choice and also that taste is well down the consumer's priority list.
This divergence in opinion may be due to the means by which consumers' buying behavior is measured, i.e. the subjective response of the consumer, obtained in a questionnaire or focus group, and may be different from that obtained objectively by measuring buying indices. Reduced-fat dairy products, described as having a rancid flavor and rubbery texture, was not liked and was  consumed in low volumes, and conversely the leading dairy products, with acidic, creamy, processed, sweet flavor and a mouth coating, moist and least firm texture, were most acceptable. A sensory analysis reveals that majority of consumers like to strong tasting products. The questionnaire also states that consumer preferred a mature brand of dairy product. This may be due to the development of appreciation for stronger flavors with age or perhaps, although the authors believe this to be less likely, that olfactory sensitivity declines with age and thus one would need a stronger flavor to perceive the same flavor intensity.
Taste is “colored” not just by the gustatory properties of the food itself, but its smell, sound and appearance as well as by expectations generated by marketing communications and even the Country of origin. However, taste is influenced by culture, an appropriate taste in one country could not acceptable another country. Some people avoid purchasing particular product and reason for this avoiding particular product is that choices are influenced by several barriers related to health, pleasure, appearance, convenience, habit and price.
Moreover, consumers still have an implicit negative association between the healthiness of food and the tastiness of food.
 Stated differently, they tend to believe that healthy food does not taste very good. For food, taste-motivated preferences have long been shown to provide an enduring motivation for dietary change and today, taste remains one of the most important motivations in choosing a certain type of food.
In sensory research, taste is represented in terms of five basic tastes, namely, sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami, the latter a savory meaty kind of taste. It has been suggested that a preference for sweet taste is correlated with the consumption of sweet-tasting products. Fragmentation of Taste:

It could be argued that up to date tastes in food represent the postmodern condition of eclecticism, disintegration, recycling and the success of style over material. Global brands and modern forms of transport and distribution have meant that supermarkets in the major cities everywhere now stock a growing diversity of produce from different parts of the globe, which were previously out of the reach of original populations. The growth of ethnic minorities within countries has added to demands for indigenous foods which then become available to a wider consumer market. As consumers we live in a world where recipes have been invented and reinvented from different cultures and regions of the world. The ``Indian Balti'', born in Birmingham, UK, is one example. Supermarkets stock food which reflects the tastes of their customers even as concurrently inspiring their taste buds in new directions. Competitiveness between supermarkets and between processed food manufacturers in fighting for market shares have added fuel to the constant battle to update the best selling niche variations of each brand and product line. Consumers are ``fed'' the endorsements of celebrities Different cultures also influence on taste. Therefore, cultures shape their food preference. For instance, some countries, like Greece, have been traditionally geographically open to many influences whilst others, like Britain, have been comparatively isolated. Some countries, such as China, cover vast areas and display great regional diversity. In Europe overseas adventurers such as the crusaders and later, the empire-builders added immensely not only to the repertoire of spices and exotic foods available to many European elites but also to the staple diets of Britain's industrialized masses in particular, tea and sugar.
Religion can also play its role in food preferences. Britain's embrace of Protestantism and France's strengthening Mediterranean and Roman Catholic focus in the sixteenth century had strong influences on social development. The Protestant ethic gave considerable impetus to the Industrial Revolution with its emphasis on hard work, wealth creation and individual achievement.
Gender can also influence in food preference. Previous studies argue that female have negative attitude toward fatty products. As compared to males, females have been found to more practices of dietary. Previous studies indicate that females preferred low fat products as compared to males and more negative attitude toward high fat products. has argued that the time delay between innovation and dispersion of new styles of eating or new flavors is now so rapid between haute and mass markets that style leadership is only possible in terms of how something is consumed rather than through the product itself. For instance, ingredients such as balsamic vinegar or sundried tomatoes now move with such dizzying speed from expensive restaurants to crisp flavorings that it is only by demonstrating more authentic ways of consuming that superiority can be maintained.  But the present study carried within Gilgit (Pakistan) on Dairy Products where no any variety of different cultures. So, the taste of a particular product could be same to all.

2.1.3 Brand Loyalty:

Term brand defined as “A name, term, sign, symbol, design, or combination of all these that make differ product from its competitors” Since marketing is too difficult phenomena and greatly influenced by culture, business environment, behavior of consumer. Therefore, an applicable branding may not always suitable for local competitors, Rundle-Thiele (2005) argues that brand loyalty concept occurs in 1940s and it was initially considered as one dimensional. But latter on two brand dimensions were developed: behavioral loyalty and attitudinal loyalty. Present study based on behavioral brand loyalty, so the study focuses on behavioral brand loyalty. Definition of behavioral brand loyalty is similar with purchasing of a particular product but later on attitudinal brand loyalty is recognized. It was stated that authentic brand loyalty goes beyond repetitive purchasing of particular brand and implies true commitment on specific brand. At the end we can define brand loyalty result of interplay between the consumer’s attitude and repeat purchase behavior,Howard and Sheth’s theory of buying behavior (1969) were the first to introduce the term brand into marketing. Brand loyalty is defined as keeping preferable to a specific product or service (BNET Business Dictionary). Customer may be loyal owing to high switching barriers, such as technology, psychological or economical factors which make customers to costly or difficult for switch to another brand. In another point of view customer also loyal because they are satisfied with the brand and want to keep on purchasing same brand Brand loyalty has been conceptualized as a consumer based construct that is determined by behavioral response and psychological observation in current times as well as prior time period A review of literature argues that there are two different approaches to investigate brand loyalty. One effects directly on brand loyalty and second effects rand loyalty indirectly. Basically brand loyalty is defined as “a deeply held commitment of consumers about a product or service that they will purchase same product or service near in future despite situational and other marketing influences that cause to switch another brand”. While there is distinction between measurement of behavioral loyalty and attitudinal loyalty, describes that the loyalty is measured through behavioral loyalty rather attitudinal loyalty. Based on these reasons, we define brand loyalty as behavioral response expressed by consumers toward a particular product or service in future. But the question is arising

About aftab hussain

Techism is an online Publication that complies Bizarre, Odd, Strange, Out of box facts about the stuff going around in the world which you may find hard to believe and understand. The Main Purpose of this site is to bring reality with a taste of entertainment


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