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Friday, June 24, 2016

Pemra tells court certain ads not permissible under its code

Posted By: aftab hussain - 1:04 AM
LAHORE: The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (Pemra) on Thursday told the Lahore High Court that advertisements of hakeems, black magic and pornography were not permissible under its code of conduct devised in 2015.
This was stated in a written reply submitted on behalf of Pemra’s Regional General Manager (Lahore) during hearing of a petition filed by Opposition Leader in Punjab Assembly Mian Mahmoodur Rasheed who challenged levy of PTV fee in electricity bills and exhibition of indecent advertisements, dramas and entertainment programmes on private cable television channels.
The reply stated that the allegations levelled in the petition were general in nature as no specific licensee (channel) was identified who allegedly violated Pemra’s code of conduct. “However it doesn’t mean that the electronic media is unfettered and unbridled. Objectionable advertisements are also not permissible under Pemra rules,” the authority said in the reply.
Justice Syed Mansoor Ali Shah directed Pemra to strictly ensure implementation of its code of conduct and clamp down on channels and cable operators showing pornography, black magic and quackery through advertisements and television commercials.
The judge also expressed concern at recovery of Rs50 as PTV fee in the electricity bills without any legal protection.
A deputy attorney general failed to give a satisfactory reply on the matter and the judge directed the PTV managing director to furnish a reasonable reply on next hearing on June 29.
Earlier, Advocate Sheraz Zaka argued on behalf of the opposition leader that the information ministry was in the doldrums as it was not taking cognizance of the fact that the cable operators were blatantly violating the Pemra code of conduct 2015 and showing Indian porn stars in their private channels, which was despicable and tarnishing the morals of youth.
The counsel argued that the cable operators were blatantly violating the “Indecent Advertisement Act” and core values of Islamic state by showing Indian porn stars in products’ promotion. He said the PTV fee levied by the information ministry recovered through electricity bills was illegal and confiscatory.

Diffrences Between Internal And External Trade

Posted By: aftab hussain - 1:03 AM
(1)Mobility of factors of production ;Generally speaking ,as compared to the international level of mobility ,factors internally are more freely mobile .in this case of labor, mobility is rather difficult due to the existence of immigration laws .for example the availability of work permits at international level is rather difficult .in the case of capital ,although it is more easily mobile ,but usually one would prefer to the invest in his own country ,inter alia .he feels rather to do so likewise and moreover the Government generally encourages people to invest internally rather than externally .land ,of course ,is virtually immobile at international level and even at an internal level .However ,generally speaking ,other obstacles which exist are e.g. culture ,language and other formalities .Moreover ,free mobility with in the country leads to equality in the costs of production .
(2)Problem of conversion of currency:
In the case of internal trade such a problem does not arise because all transactions take in the country’s own currency .problem arises at the international where the currency of the every country has got to be converted into US dollar (s),or sterling and However ,such a difference is not really major obstacle in external trade .It is only a difference between internal and external trade .
(3)Trade restrictions:
These are particular obstacles where external trade is concerned .This is as because different countries will impose different policies in the form of import and export duties and trade licensing .Moreover ,particulars countries may require a commodity specially designed in the accordance with their needs e.g. in the case auto mobiles ,cars etc ,have to meet standard required of the other country for it to be able to be exported .
The cost or expenditures involved is the insuring that a commodity reaches one place from the other varies interalia  in accordance with its trade level .Assuming that commodities are exported just internally then its cost of the transportation will be much less as compared to the similar cost involved at international level for the same commodity
(5)Government concessions:
Generally the govt provides special concessions to stimulate  growth of the particular product internally e.g. in the case of agricultural commodities ,electricity and loans are provided at different rates of the respective entrepreneurs to encourage their production and exports .This would reduce the cost of production favorable and generally such facilities are not provided for external trade of the same commodity unless the government wants to export it and that its demand inelastic e.g. rice Malaysia.
(6)Government policies:
For the purpose of stimulating the growth of a product and stabilizing its price , the govt applies various policies e.g. monetary policy ,fiscal policy ,agricultural policy ,labour policy etc. This is usually done for international trade but may be applied for internal trade as well .Now the nature of these policies are different in different countries .That is why there is a difference in the cost of production of different commodities .Thus ,as a result of the different policies in different countries ,external trade is affected whereas internal trade particularly  remain stable .
(7)Application of import and export policies :
Generally speaking there is need for these commercial policies to be applied for internal trade .However, for external trade these are a must and moreover ,must be done keeping in the view of nature of resources available and the pattern of exportables and importables  between countries . Such policies have got to be made every fiscal year to maximize utilization of resources and climinate their wastage .
(8)Trade situation:
The trade situation at the international level changes rapidly , making it practically difficult to predict a favourable condition for country and to predict the desired demand and supply of the commodity at international level .However ,at the domestic level ,the situation is somewhat better and less elastic ,making it easier to conduct business.
 This theory was developed by Ricardo in 1817 .Basically, from the theory we are able to gather two main points i.e
(1)How international trade takes place between countries? And
(2)How it is beneficial to trade with the rest world?
                As we have explained earlier , international trade takes place as a result of different costs of the production of different products which in turn is based on either one or all of the following I.e. climatic condition ,natural resources and technological know how,
We shall illustrate the theory here based in the following assumptions.
We are only 2 countries in the world and only 2 commodities are produced in the world.
There is perfect mobility of factors of production especially labor, with in the country, and that there is no mobility of such factors between the 2 countries.
 Unit of labor in country are equally efficient.
Goods are produced by one factor of production i.e labor in each country, and thereby is reward determines the cost of production itself.
Transport cost is excluded on the export and import of goods.
Goods are produced under the law of constant return or constant costs.
There are no restriction on the imports and exports of goods between countries which means that both countries are in a free trade zone.
There is perfect competition in the labor and product markets.
There is no problem in the exchange of currencies between the two countries.
(1)There we are only 2 countries in the world and only 2 commodities are produced in the world .
(2)There is the perfect mobility of the factors of production ,especially labour ,with in the country ,and that there is no mobility of such factors between the 2 countries .
(3)Units of the labour in the country are equally efficient .
(4)Goods are produced by one factor production i.e. labour in each country ,and there by its reward determines the cost of the production itself.
(5)Transport cost is excluded on the export and import of goods .
(6)Goods are produced under the law of constant returns /constant costs.
(7)There are no restrictions on the imports and exports of goods between countries which means that both countries are in a free trade zone.
(8)There is perfect completion in the labour and product markets.
(9)There is no problem in the exchange of currencies between the two countries
             Under the above assumptions we will now apply the theory .As we already know ,international trade takes place as a result of the comparative costs ,therefore here we will compare the ratio of cost of production of 2 commodities In the 2 countries .
        A country which produce a specialized product at a competitively lower cost than the other country will then specialize in its production and export it . this country will only import a product in which its cost of the production is relatively higher than the other country and thereby cannot specialize in its production.

Two TTP men among three killed in Karachi encounter

Posted By: aftab hussain - 1:00 AM
KARACHI: Three suspected militants were killed in a shootout with the police in Sohrab Goth area of the city late on Thursday night, officials said.
They said the area police backed by police commandos, taking action on intelligence reports about the presence of some militants and criminal elements, conducted a raid in Sohrab Goth near the under-construction Bara Market. The raid turned into an exchange of fire.
“The police cordoned off the area,” said SSP Malir Rao Anwar. “The armed men in the hideout attacked personnel of our team when they were
taking positions. The attack led to retaliation from police which triggered the exchange of gunfire. After an encounter, three militants were killed and two of them were later identified as Iqbal Swati and Shah Muhammad who were associated with the banned Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan.”
He said that the suspects had long been using the under-construction building as their hideout for night stay and as weapons dump. They were wanted in several cases of kidnapping for ransom

Wednesday, June 8, 2016


Posted By: aftab hussain - 1:14 AM
Ziarat (زیارت‎) is the capital of Ziarat DistrictBalochistan Province Pakistan. It is a holiday resort, and was the summer residence of the chief commissioner of Balochistan and a sanatorium for European troops. It is 8,850 feet above sea level and is located about 125 km from Quetta. The surrounding hills are wooded and picturesque. The Khilafat Hills include Ziarat's highest peak, with an altitude of 11,400 feet (3,475 m). Most tourists visit in the summer.

Near Ziarat is a juniper forest also called sanober, which features the species Juniperus macropoda.

Juniper trees at Baba Khrwari
Pakistan’s largest juniper forest is located in this reserve. The ecosystem is of inestimable value for biodiversity conservation. It is also of great ecological significance, providing local, regional, and global benefits.

The biosphere reserve is home to the largest area of juniper forest (Juniperus excelsa) in Pakistan, covering about 110,000 hectares. It is believed that the forest is the second largest of its kind in the world. The juniper species found there are of global significance because of their advanced age and slow growth rate. In fact, the junipers of Ziarat are among the oldest living trees in the world. Although no dendrological study has yet been conducted, according to one estimate, the age of a mature tree in Ziarat can exceed 5,000 years. Local people refer to the trees as "living fossils". Their remarkable longevity allows research on past weather conditions in the region, making the species of particular significance for studies on climate change andecology.

Ziarat and the surrounding juniper valleys offer good opportunities for hiking and trekking, as well as various gorges. The city is also becoming popular for a taste of snowfall during the winter.
The Quaid-e-Azam Residence in Ziarat in winter

Ziarat is the location of the Ziarat residency where Jinnah spent the last days of his life. The residency, constructed in 1892, is a wooden structure with great architectural importance. It was originally meant to be a sanatorium, but was converted into the summer residence of the Agent of the Governor General. It is now a national monument. The residency catches tourists' attention because of its location and hilly surroundings.

Fourth militant shot dead in Bangladesh in crackdown

Posted By: aftab hussain - 1:06 AM
Bangladesh police shot dead a militant on Wednesday, the fourth killed since a crackdown was launched against suspected militants blamed for a wave of gruesome killings, an officer said.
The 25-year-old militant was killed during a gun battle with police in northern Bogra district, where he was suspected of bombing a minority Shia shrine last year, the officer said.
Kawser, who uses one name, was the fourth member of the local Jamayetul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) killed since the crackdown on Tuesday. The banned group is blamed for dozens of murders of religious minorities and secular and liberal activists.
"Kawser was shot during a gunfight between police and JMB militants under a bridge at Shibganj in Bogra,'' Bogra district police spokesman Gaziur Rahman told AFP. He died on the way to a hospital.
"He directly took part in the bomb attack on a Shiite mosque in Bogra last October and we believe he also took part in other killing missions," Rahman said.
Three "high-ranking"' members of JMB were shot dead on Tuesday during raids by police in Dhaka and in a northwestern district, officers have said.
Bangladeshi authorities have been coming under mounting international pressure to end the string of attacks that have left nearly 50 people killed in the last three years.
In the past four days, an elderly Hindu priest, a Christian grocer and the wife of a top anti-terrorism police officer have been shot or hacked to death with machetes.
Authorities have blamed homegrown Islamists for the attacks, rejecting claims of responsibility from the militant Islamic State (IS) group and a South Asian branch of Al Qaeda.
The killings across officially secular but majority Sunni Muslim Bangladesh have surged in recent weeks and include the murder of two gay rights activists.
Experts say a ban on Bangladesh's largest Islamist party Jamaat-i-Islami following a protracted political crisis has pushed many towards extremism.

A Comparative Study Of Various Advertising Mediums

Posted By: aftab hussain - 1:02 AM
Chapter 1
“Advertising is paid non personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience” advertising is complex because to reach different type of audience diverse type of advertising is required. Brand advertising is for national consumer, which focuses on the development of a long term brand identity and image. Retailer advertising focus on the store where variety of products can be purchased or where services are offered retail advertising. Political advertising is used by Politician to persuade people to vote for them. Directory advertising refers to find out how to buy a product or services. Direct response advertising includes messages directed at retailer wholesaler and professional. Institutional advertising is also called corporate advertising. Public service advertising communicates a message on behalf of some cause, such as stopping drunk driving or preventing child a abuse. (William, John, & Sandra. 1995).
Advertising is one of the most expensive activity of marketing, advertising create tangible and intangible value. To check advertising effectiveness they take angles, employees distinct approaches, and generate separate knowledge bodies to interpret advertising. Marketers largely on two type of advertising affects, intermediate effects which refers to changes in consumer belief and attitudes, which relate to brand choice and purchase of consumer. Advertising has persistence affect on sales, sales and market share can be captured by behavioral effect. Through advertising it can create knowledge about the product and reinforce to purchase the product to consumer, advertising create a mind setup to store information in memory, its strengths of association decays very slowly.
The objective of marketing is to boosting the trade activities. Marketing activities bring changes and modification in the economic environment of the world, every country is trying to get the competitive edge through use of marketing science. Through use of marketing or advertising one can easily communicate and connected  with the clients, to catch customer attraction is the most important aim of  the organization through which organizations  increase the profitability. Advertising and promotion campaigns have strong on market rivalry, when a new product is introduced in market advertising boost the  product to move through its life cycle. Advertising tools are effective to increase revenue. To promote sale marketers use many motivational method for making many belonging to sales to consumers, the advertisement characteristics included size, color, and logo. Effectiveness of promotional media plays a important role to increase the demand, such as magazines, radio, direct mail, newspapers, television, and outside formats billboards and banners. The increase in sales is due to targeted segmentation of advertising, Strong brand loyalty can be achieved by advertising. both print media and electronic media had played a vital role in changing our ways of life and purchasing decision.
Most manufacturing industries largely focus on the impact of advertising on industries profitability; through this study I will be able to examine the effect the advertising expenditure for the medium which is used as advertising medium (TV, radio, magazine and newspaper) as we that each medium vary from each other regarding their information it provides, To study the affect of each media advertising on market performance of companies. For the promotion of any industries where advertising seems to play an important role. Printed advertising is more informative compared to persuasive television advertising. Their for people use to search goods more in newspapers and magazines and less on television and radio. Because in printed media provide detailed information such as prices and quality characteristics. Advertising increase the number of substitutes known to the buyers, through use of advertisement companies increase the brand loyalty as well as the demand of the product, advertising increase the profit margin and persuasive advertising increase price for the consumer. According to porters advertising on magazine is more effective than on television, while found that newspaper and radio advertising is less powerfuk too than television advertising.
 Know the global trade has change both in magnitude and orientation. The rapid transformation created enormous market opportunities for entrepreneur around the globe. by changing economies which improves the standard of living and quality of life,. Turkish entrepreneur get the knowledge and increase their market share to export their goods, variety of good and services are not available their in the earlier but entrepreneur in the region start suitcase trade with turkey. Entrepreneur provides very valuable information to be used in the development and implementation of their marketing strategies. With the changing world their they face increasing competition in the domestic markets.
Manufacturer focused on locally promotion tools, which are easily ranging from the circular of retailer and local news papers to reduced rate television advertising, in the innovation of information technology it make the retailers ability to provide benefit and it also enhanced the local information. the total advertising expenses in 2000 were $15 billion, as compare to $900 million in 1970, nearly a four-fold increase in real terms.
In recent research it came in knowledge that the milk sale decline, highlighting the risk inherent in not advertising, in another case study it is found that the brand awareness did not decline immediately or gradually after advertising has stopped, but it dropped sharply after several months. it is also noticed that brand awareness decline immediately in the absence of advertising. We did not understanding of the effect of cessation of advertising on the erosion of awareness, awareness of well known brands are decline due to last longer of advertising, it is noticed that awareness refers to the ad awareness, consumer forget ad instantly, over and again advertising create intangible brand image in the mind of the consumer. Awareness decrease in the absence of advertising at the proportional to the current awareness level.
Through this study we will able to assess the impact of advertising campaigns on sales and profits. Advertising is considered more successful for small brands or new brands; the leader is more receptive to the long term effect of advertising compared to its competitors, it is not possible to measure the impact of advertising campaign in term if media, cost, copy etc. advertising effectiveness vary from campaign to campaign.

1.1 Need Assessment:

This the empirical study which is based on primary as well as secondary data, the  research work will find the impact of each advertising medium on the behavior of consumer  and the media advertising intensity in the purchasing behavior of good by consumer, the research work conclude that such study has not been conducted in Gilgit city. It can provide different base line for future study by finding attitudinal difference toward advertising in Gilgit Baltistan,
This topic has new paradigm in prefix of GB that’s way this topic is important for further study and that is the reason why this topic is selected in the first place in Gilgit Baltistan.
1.2 Research aim:
The aim of the research is to find out the impact of advertising medium on the purchasing behavior of the consumer.
1.3 Research objectives:
1.3.1 Sub objective:
The main objective of the study is to analyze the advertising affect on ultimate customer. this research work will come to know that there is an effect of advertising medium on the purchasing behavior of customer.

1.3.2 Specific objectives:
To find out which advertising medium is more effective.
To study the affect of each media advertising on the behavior of consumer.
1.4 Research questions:
Q1: Which medium plays a good role to capture concentration of the consumer?

1.5 Delimitations:
In the new era everyone is well aware about the power of media, the research work will analyze the attitude of people towards advertising mediums and the attitude of customer toward advertising, in this research the data will be collected in cross sectional area. questionnaire distribution among the educated people who understand the questionnaire easily and respond accordingly.

Chapter 2
2.0 Literature review:
In the new world of globalization consumer enjoy greater interaction opportunities, it’s up to marketers to communicate effectively with consumer to obtain valuable insights into their preferences and needs. Marketer’s best exploit the available advertising Medias which help them to succeed to deliver the message about the product. Business advertising is important, through advertising and marketing many of the entrepreneurs of turkey are attracted in Georgia, through advertising and marketing tool the Georgians invite the entrepreneur from turkey and all part of the world, regarding advertising, despite its moderate impact as an information outlet, the role of television should not be underestimated because it is gaining momentum as a communication and advertising medium in Georgia. So the role of television is very important to capture the attention of the investors, here the other advertising medium are not underestimate all media play an important role in the development of the companies, companies willing to invest in Georgian market they adopt the customer oriented strategies to gain customer trust this is the vital element of long term success and survival in the market. Georgian people trust advertising even they have doubt about the tricky messages. For the consumer communication it is the essential element. Advertising campaigns can build trust and consumer friendly very soon, promotion of product and brand building is achieved easily through advertising. .
In this empirical study the effect of each advertising mediums such as television, radio, newspaper and magazine on the firm’s profitability. In this study the general results show that television advertising gives more result and other advertising media did not play an effective role to increase profit margins. It is our perception that news papers and magazines are more informative but it do not give good results.
In this study practitioner cooperative advertising is not look the degree of intrabrand and  interbrand competition , one must consider the brand characteristics. when interbrand competition is low and intrabrand completion is high the manufacturer has produced  the universally recognized brand .
To advance their modeling approach marketing research is conducted, marketing can create long lasting consumer based brand equity, through advertisement one can boost up the consumer intangible value. Advertising can create permanent intangible assets or brand equity.
These researches models are about the memory of ads, the study help us to understand what is the effect of delay advertising on the consumer memory. Effect of advertising durations under various scenarios of memory, this research work provides method that allows managers and researchers to distinguish between models with different degrees of memory. The model also provides us the cessation effect of advertising.
The sole objective of advertising is to sell the products or services, to increase the market share, increase sales volume, to get more people to buy our product. The purpose is vey common in advertisement campaign which is build to encourage the buyers to use more and more products,
Advertisement attempts to get the consumer to use the product more frequently, advertising is the only medium which create awareness about the variety of product for different purpose on the given occasion or different occasions. The basic them of advertising is to encourage the consumers to buy more often or more of product, advertising programs are developed to introduce and support a promotional programmed. A company which is well known for a product and has diversified into the lines can boost their sale of that new product which was not known to public so far. Some companies have their product with negative attribute which discourage their than one expect, advertising convert the disadvantages into advantage of the product.
Consumer perception  is important toward the product and services which effect the  buying behavior of the consumer, market researcher try to examine the consumer perceptions and attitude toward products, services, and marketing mix. In the past it was noticed that consumer have negative perception or attitude toward marketing, now consumer became more and more knowledgeable through advertising practices, customers are more critical regarding comercial advertising, the perception of consumer in different countries have different regarding their marketing practices.
The effect of advertising is for long run, advertising is attempt to influence the need to be analyzed, visiting to retailer, trying a new brand, increasing usage level, maintaining existing brand loyalty, the communication and the decision process that proceed and influence that behavior must be examined. The process of communicating is to aware, image or attitude and specified the target segment needs. The segment defining the variable that include usage, benefits sought, awareness level, brand perceptions and life styles. Any advertising objective involves a communication task something that advertising can reasonably hope to achieve by itself. Communication is intended to create awareness, impart information, develop attitude or induce an action. In DAGMAR, the communication tasks are founded on a specific model of the communication process through this model it is clarify very effectively that there is set of sequence of mental steps through which brand and objectives must be climb to gain the much needed acceptance.
Manufacturer face two marke segment, consumer know only one brand is an exclisive segment and purchase only the known brand as long as prioce is below, they are price insensitive. where competing segment consumers know about different brands, They are price sensitive. Under the indirect channel scenario, manufacturers and retailers are private owned profit maximizers. The manufactures who decides the advertising level should also bear the ads cost.
Advertising response is the top importance because the dream of advertiser of passing the message to the target audience for his products, services and ideas will remain only as a dream as in case there is no response for such appeals or plea made by the advertising company. Every advertisement tend to communicate, to transfer knowledge, to create an image, to arouse needs, to generate interest or to precipitate action. Advertiser wants to influence the behavior of prospects placing message in mass media that are selected by the people. If at all the person is to influenced by an advertisement, he must see it, understand it, interpret it, remember it, accept it, and orient to buy it. Here four way classification for the sake of simplicity and clarity.A person is said to be exposed to an advertisement when he is able to receive it physically, this exposure differs from medium to medium.Perception is the process by which an individual maintains contacts with his environment. An individual receive the stimuli through his various sense and interprets them. Integration refers to the process of judging, evaluating, remembering and fitting with the existing beliefs and attitudes of an individual.The final response is the consumer action to the message passed on to him by an ad. The consumer action is manifested in variant ways depending on the advertiser’s objectives.
When sales of the product increases we considered the campaign successful. The profitability of a campaign is calculated as the ratio of margins associated with increment of sales, to the correspondent advertising cost. TV advertising expenditure by brands is provided by kantar media. Before calculating one must subtract retailer’s margins from the increment turnover. Advertising campaign has a strong positive impact and emerges as the main positive driver of profitability.
The significant alternative of 30 second spot and the increasing opportunities provided new platforms; there is an uncountable demand for television sale houses to offer different advertising products. The advertisers are enthusiastic about brand integrated programmes they analyzed that these programmes as the medium to communicate about the brand than in a traditional 30 second commercial, the new television advertising formats is not hard to find and it increasing popularity particularly difficult to put a value, this scenario furnished for research into the planning and implementation of these forms of television advertising and assessment of their effectiveness.
The elasticity of short run of advertising is commonly found to be around, advertising have long run effects over and above the short run impact with a half of the 3 to 4 weeks, advertising are materialized for long run. we have noticed through advertising studies that the increase in sales during the year of increased advertising and the effect is doubled over next 2 years. Some form of offline advertising especially TV advertising has not decline over last 15 years, new advertising instrument and channels are developed due to social and technological changes. Offline media have focuses on medium to long run effects, while banner advertising the focus is on short run. It is find out that advertising does not directly affect choice, but instead changes the consideration set.
The modern and updated source of advertising is internet, internet has open a vide variety of research streams based on single click a lot of data is presented. Consumer focusing on browsing and purchasing, consumer gets the detailed information about the any sourced advertising product. They used eye tracking devices to capture the attention of the consumer, the online advertising in the combination with survey of internet user’s recall, recognition, and awareness of the other medium of advertising. The online advertising focuses on exploring consumer behavior and many offline advertising effect hold true in an online setting. it is important that their may have a congruency between the website and the ad. The congruity has a more favorable effect on the attitudes towards the brand, whereas incongruity has a more favorable effect on recall and recognition. Models have been developed for click through and for purchase acceleration, we believe that further modeling work to study the potential effects of these ads on various pre purchase decisions.
The effect of banner ads on sales are hard to track, the effectiveness of banners ad is explore in different dimension, here in this research the focus is not the banner ads effect on sales, a key challenge for the banner advertising is that its effectiveness is difficult to evaluate, but focuses on the changes in behavior that can be identified from clickstream data. The advertising make page elasticities for segment the three different makes which placed premium display ads on the site. Segment 1 are not far from the average advertising elasticity, the advertising elasticity also differs with respect to make. 
Managers are keen to altering their operation decision to achieve their short term goals, 2 limitations to such an interpretation. First studies pool all discretionary expenses together by adding R & D , advertising expenses. It is not clear which discretionary expenses are subject to change and in which direction. Their have different implications on short term earnings. Compared with R&D, advertising have a more and immediate impact on sales. Manager increase advertising to generate a positive short term response in revenues and earnings.
Managers are interested in increasing short term earnings to achieve their goals they either increase or decrease advertising. Reducing the advertising to meet financial reporting benchmarks. Reduction in advertising expenses can decrease in the sales in the current period, the decrease in the operation expenses leads to increase in current report earnings. The direct effect of advertising increased advertising is a reduction in short term earnings. To achieve a net increase in current earnings, the impact of advertising on sales and earning has to offset the direct reduction in earnings.
By using monthly advertising data examine the timing of altering discretionary expenses. To minimize the deviation costs, manager much have information as possible about the difference between current firm performance and the desired earnings benchmark. The information which you gain is more complete towards the ends of a fiscal period, manager get more information to alter their real activities. To collect the given information managers don’t take enough time and they choose the real actions that require the least amount of lag time for execution. Advertising activities require shorter lag time between the decision and execution time.
The focus of marketing research is to study the effect of advertising in the consumer mind set and market performance, marketing research also conclude that advertising changes consumer mindset ( such as cognition, affect and experience), and behavior. Short term advertising cause long term effects. In research it is noticed that short term advertising decays quickly. Decaying behavior may be due to the low attitude behavioral consistency. Fact that reinforcement and habitual loyalty effects are than the effect of advertising, marketing managers some times design advertising programme that solely to increase the brand awareness and improve the brand attitude without considering the instant sales of product. Advertising basically provide the knowledge and brand attitude. brand awareness is the brand exposer and experiences which is gain by the consumer, advertising provide the brand familiarity brand recognition improves future advertising effectiveness.
In e commerce over past 2 decades businesses provide an unpredictable marketing opportunities, the network comscore online sales of U.S products in 2007 reached $136.4 billion, 20% increase over the 2006 and in 2010 the sale increase to $176.9 billion. The European online sales reached to 323 billion Euros in 2011. In the new business world the e marketing has become the prevalent channels. To increase its importance the channel coordination through cooperative advertising between the retailer and its manufacturers. Co operational advertising plays important role in promotion of manufacturers retailers and retailer customers. The expenditure for cooperative advertising in U.S was $50 billion more recently. The increase in spending in cooperative, advertising has motivates us to explore more research. Advertising campaign create product attitude and to influence the potential consumers to purchase its product.
It is suggested by all the SBUs that advertising spending have direct and indirect affect of firm’s sales and financial value. Advertising may generate favorable responses such as greater market awareness, quality competitiveness, customer preferences and brand image. To gain customer attention and bestow value to brands advertising may build creativity, firms increase the ads when the brand is under pressure to perform and gain customer equity and brand value. brand awareness, brand value and advertising in turn boost future sales and profits of the firm. Advertising faster penetrate the market and accelerate the velocity of consumer response, for the new product advertising develop instant awareness that may leads to more and faster cash flows. Advertising create a barrier to competition, provide bargaining power vis-à-vis, all of these benefits of advertising enable the firms to enjoy higher financial value. Advertising may decrease the investors search cost and signals firms specific competitiveness regarding its existing products and new projects.
Indoor advertising means the use of those advertisers that carry the message right in the house or indoor of the audience.Newspaper is one of those which give news-views ideas, interpretation, opinion, comments and explanation regarding the social, economical, political, educational, moral, cultural, ecological, meteorological development and the like. Newspaper is consider to be the back bone of advertising programe and it is consider to be the most powerful message carrier. Of the total space, 45 percent of goes to advertisements in one form or the other and the rest for texture matter.megazine are the one of the oldest media advertising. Magazine are the periodicals published weekly, monthly, fort- nightly, annually and quarterly.Radio advertising can be called as word of mouth, it is a different medium as it appeals more to ear than the eyes through sound. In spite of the strong competitor namely television, still it is a vital medium of advertising. Television telecasting advertising is considered to be the gift of this century. Broadly there are two types of advertising namely, program or sponsored program and announcement. in sponsor advertiser pay for the time. The television advertisements are called as television commercials, lasting for 10, 15, 20 and 30 second.Film advertising is another medium of publicity characterized by sound, motion, colour, vision and timeliness. It is like a television run on the enlarged screen for large audience. Screen publicity is liked by people of all age, sex, profession, political affiliation, cultural heritage and income groups because of its magic of life size presentation of the theme. Outdoor advertising is the only one of its kind that has been carried for ages. Outdoor advertising is one which is clothed with people who move out of the doors. Outdoor advertising messages are placed in the strategic locations where they exposed the audience on the move. A poster is a sheet of paper pasted on a wooden card or metal board depicted the advertising message. Poster is the single largest form of outdoor media accounting for 75 percent of this media.
The success of advertising depends on two factors namely:
Designing the poster.
Selection of its site.
Painted display is the painted bulletins and wall painting. A painted bulletin in nothing but a metal sheet of a rectangular shape of a standard size, erected at heights to command the visibility from a distance.Traveling display is refer to the transit advertising. It stand for all type of advertising signs or displays used in trains, buses autos and other such transportation vehicles and the terminals or the stations from which they operate. Book-let is very small advertising book which is not more than 8 to 10 pages fastened with staples or glue to allow it to open as a book. Catalogues is quite similar to the book let in physical make up except that it is much larger and presents wider range of products of the business house. Exhibition is in effect, a congregation of show rooms of different manufacturers under a single roof. Exhibition is normally organized by trade associations and chamber of commerce government is taking keen interest in these. Exhibition attracts the dealers and consumers towards the latest products in the line by providing detailed information and demonstration.
Advertising perception and expectancies it is easier to sell someone who has favorable impression of the brand offered, sale representative are more concern about the attitude of the customer towards brands that they are selling. Sale persons are concerned with and from the judgments about the quality and quantity of advertising in the market. The perceived size of the media schedule. To signaling the company’s commitment behind the brand, strong level of advertising and appealing message are important to the salesperson because this increase In chance that customer will aware about the brand favorably predisposed toward it. their are two type of consumer one who is the retailer, the retailer determine whether and how the brand is made available and represented to the customer at the point of purchase. The failure success of brand is the ultimate response of the final user of the product as they demonstrated through buying behavior.
There are  three groups movies drive has been identified by the extant research namely movie characteristics, post filming marketing studio actions and non marketing studio factors. Movie is based on the familiar story or other cultural element. The actions discussed include the movies budget, advertising expenditure, timing and the screens. The no of researchers have reported a positive correlation of movie budget with box office. studio distribution activities and more specifically their timing policy have also been shown to correlate with movie box office.non studio factors is product of high societal interest and involvement, movie success is also influenced by a number of factors over which the producing studio has no or only limited direct control.
This research is conducted from small sample and in future from large sample same research may produce different result. The model described in this article is exploratory and the empirical data base isstill small. This situation is not unusual in an early stage of a model's life and should stimulate further research.
Researcher formulate the consumer memory to be a state dependent, heavy advertising can enhance the awareness, consumer memory might smaller if advertising did not increase sufficiently in brand advertising. Future research needs to develop them to facilitate the understanding of which marketing factors effect the memory of ads. (Ashwin  & Prasad., 2011)
The empirical approach which estimate the degree of persistence of individual firms. This research investigates the existence of persistence effect based on individual firms, in this paper we interpret the degree of persistence between advertising and intangible value as the effectiveness of advertising to create brand intangible, it would be valuable further inquire into the reasons of different types of persistence through large scale studies at the firms or brand level. The number of products introduced and advertised over period, number of the ad agencies. It would be also be interesting to investigate the relationship between the degree of persistence measure and other brand intangible measures.
There is a strong conceptual foundation to accompany the analysis in support of the hypothesis and while we have argued against alternative explanation, this method does not allow one to draw definitive conclusions with respect to causality among constructs. Future research using longitudinal and field experimental design could be useful in this regard. 

3.5 dependent variable
The dependent variable in this research work is behavior of consumer towards advertising mediums.
3.6 independent variable
The independent variable in this research work includes print media, electronic media, mobile, billboards.

Chapter 3
3.1 Sample Selection:
The research questions were examined from the individuals who provided information. Questionnaires were used as a secondary source of data collection. As with the help of Questionnaires, it is very easy to gain data efficiently for research purpose. The study used exploratory study where The research question were examine individually, out of the total population  hundreds of people from Gilgit Baltistan will be examine especially the students of university and colleges  and the research will analyze that which advertising medium is suitable and inspire to purchase the specific advertising product. The data will be collected through questionnaire. in this research work questionnaires were personally distributed among those who are aware of the advertising campaign and purchase the product accordingly.
3.2 Population Frame:
The research work will attempt to find the response of hundred peoples from different areas of Gilgit Baltistan. Which might be the college and university students, businessmen, and employess.
3.3 Unit of Analysis:
Unit of analysis in this study were individuals students, business and employees at whom the researcher want to know their behavior about the advertising mediums.
3.4 Data collection methods
For the completion this research secondary data was obtained from published journal articles from publishers like the emerald publishing group, books and magazines were also used.
3.7 Data analysis
The data is analyzed by using SPPSS and the results will be interpreted through frequency distribution tables and bar graphs.
3.8 Data collection instruments
Primary data was collected using a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was
Designed according to the objectives and study variables and responses were anchored on a
five (5) point Likert scale ranging from 5 – strongly agree to 1 - strongly disagree. Part one of the questionnaires was used to gather biographic data of the respondents and part two was to collect data on electronic media, print media, mobile, billboard.
3.9 Type of study:
Exploratory study
3.10 Instrument Development/Selection:
Instruments for measurement of advertising medium on the purchasing behavior of customer and sales promotion will be adopted from al, (2013)

Chapter 4
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Respondents’ gender

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent  
Male 62 62.0 62.0 62.0  
  Female 38 38.0 38.0 100.0  
  Total 100 100.0 100.0

The results in above table shows that most of the respondents in my research were male with a percentage of 62% and female respondents in the research were 38%.
4.2 Age Analysis:

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent  
Less Than 20 25 25.0 25.0 25.0  
  21-30 56 56.0 56.0 81.0  
  31-40 15 15.0 15.0 96.0  
  41 &Above 4 4.0 4.0 100.0  
  Total 100 100.0 100.0
The  results in above table shows the age of Respondent in this research, out of the hundred respondents 25 respondents are less than 20, 56 respondents lies between 21 and 30, 15 respondent lies In between the 31 and 40 and 4 respondents are lies above 41.
4.3 Education Analysis:

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent  
Graduation 77 77.0 77.0 77.0  
  Masters 22 22.0 22.0 99.0  
  M Phil/PhD 1 1.0 1.0 100.0  
  Total 100 100.0 100.0
The above table shows the education of Respondent in this research, out of the hundred respondent 77 respondents are graduate, 22 respondents master level, 1 respondent are M Phil level.
  4.4 Occupation Analysis:

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent  
Student 48 48.0 48.0 48.0  
  Business man 8 8.0 8.0 56.0  
  Employee 44 44.0 44.0 100.0  
  Total 100 100.0 100.0
The above table shows the occupation of the Respondents, out of the hundred respondent 48 respondents are students, 8 respondents businessmen’s and 44 respondent are employees of private and government institutions.
4.5 Income Analysis:

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent  
10000 71 71.0 71.0 71.0  
  20000 13 13.0 13.0 84.0  
  40000 11 11.0 11.0 95.0  
  60000 2 2.0 2.0 97.0  
  80000 3 3.0 3.0 100.0  
  Total 100 100.0 100.0

The above graph shows the income of the Respondents, out of the hundred respondent 71 respondents who have monthly income 10000, 13 respondents have monthly income 20000, 11 respondent have monthly income 40000, 2 respondent have monthly income 60000 and 3 respondent have monthly income 80000.
4.6 Reliability and Validity of instrument
Reliability Analysis:

Reliability Statistics  

Variables Cronbach's Alpha N of Items  
Electronic Media .725 5  
Print Media .664 5  
Mobile .848 6  
BillBoard .836 6

The interim consistency reliability or the Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients of the four
independent (Electronic media, Print media, Mobile and Billboard). The result indicates that the Cronbach’s alpha for the four-item measure is 0.796. the four independent variables given below have the range from 0.664 to 0.84. The research instrument was examined for validity and reliability by using Cronbach’s Alpha value and Content Validity Index for the two aspects respectively. Results in table showed the instrument was both reliable and valid as the Cronbach Alpha Values were well above 0.6. So there is a consistency in the variables.

4.7 One-Sample Test

One-Sample Test  
Test Value = 0                                         
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference  
        Lower Upper  
ELECT 59.701 99 .000 3.93600 3.8052 4.0668  
PRNT 51.126 99 .000 3.30600 3.1777 3.4343  
MOB 38.810 99 .000 3.52000 3.3400 3.7000  
BILL 40.488 99 .000 3.26800 3.1078 3.4282

One sample test such as means was investigated for the interval-scaled independent variables (mention in table). The results are shown in table that the Mean of electronic media shows (3.93), Print media (3.30), billboard (3.26) and mobile shows (3.52). So, this research shows that data is more reliable i.e. agreed by respondents in an average. The result of electronic media is more preferable than other media so it shows strong impact to attract consumer toward advertising mediums.

For a long term survival it is important for success of business about the knowledge of brand in long term memory that is created by the short term marketing efforts. Therefore this paper aimed at the subject of publicity through balance media and tries to find out which advertising medium is preferred by the future users of product. To find the results I collect both primary and secondary data, Primary data was collected using a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed according to the objectives and study variables and responses were anchored on a five (5) point Likert scale, and secondary data collect through articles, journals, and books. Each producer brand has a faithful section of customers who purchase their preferred brand unless other company advertises their product benefit and product is available in almost every shop. The producer first takes decision of advertising expenditure level and after that the wholesale price of its respective brand. Publicity openly affects the power of loyalty a customer has for the beloved brand. If the preferred brand promotes, the loyalty power boosts up but if the rival brand promotes, it reduces. After developing hypothesis we collected data from customer and retailers to examine advertisement impact. This paper shows that there is strong positive relationship of electronic and mobile advertising to attract consumer toward the product.
Initially, it is difficult to investigate electronic media because there is hundreds of TV Channel so it is difficult to find overall impact
The limitation of this research is that it does not show that which advertisement tool is more effective for long time because previous research explores that different advertising medium would be better than screen media for delivering persuasive ad information and for delivering non persuasive information was supported in a variety of ways.
This study recommends that marketers must analyze the impact an advertising tool before running a marketing campaign.
Electronic media have a strong impact on consumers` mind so electronic media must be considered as a primary tool to promote products in Gilgit-Baltistan.   
Advertising plays a vital role in product promotion business organizations needs to have a clear strategy to address the issues related promotional campaigns.
Print Media and Billboards also have a significant impact on consumers’ minds,   therefore these tools should also be considered during promotional campaigns.
Mobiles phones have low impact, thus this study recommends advertisers do not invest huge amounts in this tool but also do not totally ignore advertising on mobile phones as their presence on mobiles will help them strong bound a marketing campaign 
Future Work
This research is conducted from small sample and in future from large sample same research may produce different result. The model described in this article is exploratory and the empirical data base is still small. This situation is not unusual in an early stage of a model's life and should stimulate further research.


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